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Defined Benefit Plan BOB游戏

如果你和许多美国人一样,你可能有一个雇主资助的退休计划.  This is the third article in a three-part series about the basics of 401k, 403b, and Defined Benefit Plans.

你可能指望从固定收益计划中获得资金来帮助你获得舒适的生活 退休. Often referred to as traditional pension plans, defined benefit plans promise to pay you a specified amount at 退休.

为了帮助您了解固定收益计划在您的退休储蓄策略中可能扮演的角色, here’s a look at some basic plan attributes. 但由于每 雇主的计划 有点不同, you’ll need to read the summary plan description, 或社会民主党, provided by your company to find out the details of your own plan.

What are defined benefit plans?

Defined benefit plans are qualified employer-sponsored 退休 plans. Like other qualified plans, they offer tax incentives both to employers and to participating employees. For example, your employer can generally deduct contributions made to the plan. 而且,在你开始从该计划中获得分红之前(通常是在退休期间),你通常不会对这些捐款缴税。. 然而, these tax incentives come with strings attached–all qualified plans, including defined benefit plans, 必须遵守1974年《BOB》(ERISA)和《BOB》(Internal Revenue Code)的复杂规则.

How do defined benefit plans work?

A defined benefit plan guarantees you a certain benefit when you retire. How much you receive generally depends on factors such as your salary, 年龄, and years of service with the company.

每年, 养老金精算师计算未来预计从该计划中支付的福利,并最终确定金额, 如果有任何, needs to be contributed to the plan to fund that projected benefit payout. Employers are normally the only contributors to the plan. 但固定收益计划可以要求员工为该计划缴款,尽管这种情况并不常见.

你可能必须工作几年,才能根据计划获得永久的退休福利. This is generally referred to as “vesting.” If you leave your job before you fully vest in an employer’s defined benefit plan, you won’t get full 退休 benefits from the plan.

How are 退休 benefits calculated?

Retirement benefits under a defined benefit plan are based on a formula. 这个公式可以为你为雇主工作的每一年提供一个固定的金额, or it can provide for a specified percent年龄 of earnings. 许多计划通过计算雇员最近几年的工作收入的平均值来计算雇员的退休福利, 另外, averaging an employee’s earnings for his or her entire career), taking a specified percent年龄 of the aver年龄, and then multiplying it by the employee’s number of years of service.

注意:许多固定收益养老金计划公式也会根据你预期将获得的社会保障福利的百分比减少养老金福利.

How will 退休 benefits be paid?

许多固定福利计划允许你选择如何支付你的福利. Payment options commonly offered include:

  • A single life annuity: You receive a fixed monthly benefit until you die; after you die, no further payments are made to your survivors.
  • A qualified joint and survivor annuity: You receive a fixed monthly benefit until you die; after you die, 你的未亡配偶将继续领取补助金(金额至少等于你的补助金的50%),直到他或她去世.
  • A lump-sum payment: You receive the entire value of your plan in a lump sum; no further payments will be made to you or your survivors.

选择正确的支付方式非常重要,因为您所选择的方式会影响您最终获得的收益. You’ll want to consider all of your options carefully, and compare the benefit payment amounts under each option. Because so much may hinge on this decision, you may want to discuss your options with a financial advisor.

What are some advant年龄s offered by defined benefit plans?

  • Defined benefit plans can be a major source of 退休 income. They’re generally designed to replace a certain percent年龄 (e.g., 70 percent) of your pre退休 income when combined with Social Security.
  • Benefits do not hinge on the performance of underlying investments, so you know ahead of time how much you can expect to receive at 退休.
  • 大多数福利都是由联邦政府通过养老金福利保证公司(PBGC)为每年的最高限额投保的.

How do defined benefit plans differ from defined contribution plans?

虽然这很容易做到, don’t confuse a defined benefit plan with another type of qualified 退休 plan, the defined contribution plan (e.g., 401(k) plan, profit-sharing plan). 顾名思义,固定收益计划关注的是最终支付的收益. 你的雇主承诺在退休时支付你一定的金额,并有责任确保计划中有足够的资金最终支付这一金额, even if plan investments don’t perform well.

相比之下,定义缴款计划主要集中于对该计划的当前缴款. 你的计划指明你每年有权获得的供款金额(由你或你的雇主作出的供款), but your employer is not obligated to pay you a specified amount at 退休. 而不是, 你在退休时收到的金额将取决于你选择的投资以及这些投资的表现.

Some employers offer hybrid plans. 混合计划包括固定收益计划,它具有固定缴款计划的许多特点. One of the most popular forms of a hybrid plan is the cash balance plan.

What are cash balance plans?

现金余额计划是固定收益计划,在许多方面类似于固定缴款计划. Like defined benefit plans, 他们有义务在退休时支付你一定数额的钱,而且他们有联邦政府的保险. 但它们也提供了固定缴款计划最常见的特点之一:退休基金在个人账户中积累(在这种情况下, 一个假设的账户).

This allows you to easily track how much 退休 benefit you have accrued. And your benefit is portable. If you leave your employer, 一般来说,你可以选择一次性分配你的既得利益帐户余额. 这些资金可以滚转到个人退休账户(IRA)或你新雇主的退休计划.

你现在该怎么办

It’s never too early to start planning for 退休. 你的养老金收入, along with Social Security, 个人储蓄, 和投资收入, can help you realize your dream of living well in 退休.

首先要弄清楚当你退休时,你可以从你的固定收益计划中得到多少钱. Your employer will send you this information every year. 但是要阅读附属细则. Estimates often assume that you’ll retire at 年龄 65 with a single life annuity. 如果你提前退休或领取联合和幸存者年金,你的每月收益可能会少得多. 最后, remember that most defined benefit plans don’t offer cost-of-living adjustments, 因此,现在看起来很慷慨的福利在未来通货膨胀的时候可能会贬值很多.

这里有一些你可以做的其他事情来充分利用你的固定收益计划:

  • Read the summary plan description. 它提供了贵公司养老金计划的详细信息,包括重要的信息, such as vesting requirements and payment options. 如果有任何你不明白的地方,向你的计划管理员提出问题.
  • 回顾你的账户信息,确保你知道你有权享有什么福利. 定期做这个, checking your Social Security number, 出生日期, and the compensation used to calculate your benefits, since these are common sources of error.
  • Notify your plan administrator of any life changes that may affect your benefits (e.g., marri年龄, divorce, death of a spouse).
  • Keep track of the pension information for each company you’ve worked for. 确保你有养老金计划声明的副本,准确地反映了你有权获得的福利数额.
  • 注意变化. 雇主可以改变甚至终止养老金计划,但你会收到大量通知. The key is, read all notices you receive.
  • Assess the impact of changing jobs on your pension. Consider staying with one employer at least until you’re vested. Keep in mind that the longer you stay with one employer, the more you’re likely to receive at 退休.

最后,当你临近退休,有了固定收益计划,你有很多选择要权衡.  If you have questions, please do not hesitate to reach out to us.

At BOB游戏,我们只收费用 财务顾问. 我们寻求通过真实和持久的关系为BOB游戏带来清晰和目的. 对生活.

Please visit our prior two articles in this three-part series on 401 (k)基础知识 and 403(b) Basics for further reading.

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